Classics Guide

Reference Tools

 When researching a new topic, it is often necessary to get an overview, explanations of unfamiliar terms, or brief factual information.

The print and electronic resources listed below include selected reference materials (dictionaries, encyclopaedias, handbooks, guides, and standards) for the field of Classics. To find additional reference materials, check our Reference Materials database.

Key Resources

  • Oxford Classical Dictionary, The [HIL-REF DE5 .O9 2012]

    The authoritative one-volume guide to all aspects of the ancient world.

  • Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World: Antiquity [HIL-REF DE5 .N3513 2002 vols. 1-15]

    Updating and translation of Pauly's Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft.

  • Cambridge Histories Online (Cambridge Core)
    This resource, part of Cambridge Core, contains the online versions of over 270 Cambridge Histories publications in the following 15 areas: American History, British History, Economic History, General History, History of Science, History of the Book, Language and Linguistics, Literary Studies, Music, Philosophy, Political and Social Theory, Regional History, Religious Studies, Theatre Studies and Performing Arts, and Warfare. For a complete listing of titles in each area, please refer to the publisher's site, at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/what-we-publish/collections/cambridge-histories
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Oxford Bibliographies Online
    "Oxford Bibliographies Online (OBO) is an entirely new research tool for the social sciences and humanities. A scholar-curated library of discipline-based subject modules, OBO is designed to help busy researchers find reliable sources of information in half the time by directing them to exactly the right chapter, book, website, archive, or data set they need for their research."
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Cambridge Ancient History, The
    see also [HIL-REF HIL-REF D57 .C252 vols. 1-14]

    Complete new edition of the text volumes of this definitive work of reference.

  • Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome [HIL-REF DE5 .O95 2010 v.1-7]

    v. 1. Academy-Bible -- v. 2. Bilingualism and multilingualism-Dura-Europos -- v. 3. Earthquakes-Hetaera -- v. 4. Hippocratic Corpus-Mosaics -- v. 5. Mos Maiorum-Posidonius of Apamea -- v. 6. Postal service-Teleology -- v. 7. Temples-Zoology ; Topical outline ; Index.

  • Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition [HIL-REF DF77 .E54 2000 vols. 1-2]

    This two-volume encyclopedia explores Greece and the Greeks for the 3500 years of their recorded history. It is restricted to the history and culture of the Greeks themselves, and does not focus on the Hellenic tradition in global terms or the influence that Hellenism has exerted on other cultures.

  • Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome [HIL-REF DG75 .A35 2004]

    Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, Updated Edition provides in-depth, easy-to-understand information on all areas of Roman life, moving from the eighth century B.C. to the fifth century A.D., spanning more than 1,200 years. Organized thematically, each chapter includes an extensive bibliography as well as site-specific photographs, line drawings, and maps, more than 175 in all. Clear, authoritative, and well-organized, Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, Updated Edition provides a unique look at a society whose art, literature, law, and engineering have profoundly influenced the development and shape of Western civilization throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and up to today. Distributed by Syndetic Solutions, Inc.

  • Oxford handbook of social relations in the Roman world [HIL-REF HN10 .R7 O94 2011]

    The study of ancient Roman society blossomed in the 1970s. By now, we possess a very large literature on the individuals and groups that constituted the Roman community, and the various ways in which members of that community interacted. There is, however, no overview that takes into account the multifarious progress that has been made in the past thirty or forty years.

  • Oxford handbook of warfare in the classical world [HIL-REF U29 .O93 2013]

    This handbook gathers 38 leading historians to describe, analyze, and interpret warfare and its effects in classical Greece and Rome.

  • Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae (LIMC) [HIL-REF N7760 .L49 vols. 1-8]
    A multi-volume set that offers information concerning the iconography of Greek, Etruscan and Roman mythologies.
  • Oxford Dictionary of Classical Myth and Religion, The [HIL-REF BL723 .O936 2003]

    Unique in its coverage of both Greek and Roman myths and religious life in ancient times The Oxford Dictionary of Classical Myth and Religion is the first A-Z reference work of its kind. From Abaris to Zoroaster the Dictionary provides invaluable information not only on the mythologies of Greece and Rome but also on festivals, religious places, monuments, personnel, divination, astrology, magic, Judaism, Christianity, regional religions, and 'mystery cults' in the Graeco-Roman world. Offering quick, accessible information in short entries and longer detailed entries on the legends and rituals of classical antiquity, this wide-ranging reference work is the ideal resource for students and teachers of ancient history and religion, and anyone fascinated with the classical period. Book jacket. Distributed by Syndetic Solutions, Inc.

Additional Resources

  • Companion to Greek mythology
    This title is part of the Blackwell Reference Online e-book collection.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Encyclopedia of Religion, The [HIL-REF BL31 .E46 1987 vols. 1-16]

    Includes bibliographies and index.

  • Thesaurus Cultus et Rituum Antiquorum (ThesCRA) [HIL-REF BL727 .T48 2004]

    A multi-volume reference work on various aspects of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman cults and rituals.

  • Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World [HIL-REF G1033 .B3 2000]

    "Quite simply the most important and most complicated project to be undertaken in classical studies this generation."--NEH reviewer "This atlas provides us with a vital missing tool. It is a model of creative planning, and will be absolutely indispensable."--C. Nicolet (Sorbonne, Paris)

  • Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Greek and Roman Women: Notable Women from Sappho to Helena [HIL-REF HQ1136 .L54 2000]

    Hailing from all corners of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, the women profiled here are notable for their own accomplishments as well as their family ties. More than 400 A-to-Z entries tell the life stories of women from all walks of life -- from poets, wives, and mistresses to rulers, slaves, and businesswomen. Distributed by Syndetic Solutions, Inc.

  • Companion to ancient epic, A
    This title is part of the Blackwell Reference Online e-book collection.
    Unlimited simultaneous users
  • Companion to ancient history, A
    This title is part of the Blackwell Reference Online e-book collection.
    Unlimited simultaneous users
  • Blackwell Reference Online
    WARNING: This resource loads slowly and may need a page reload. Blackwell Reference Online "is a vast new online library giving instant access to the most authoritative and up-to-date scholarship across the humanities and social sciences. With more than 350 reference volumes to be published in Blackwell Reference Online by the end of 2008, it is the largest academic reference collection available online and includes the critically-acclaimed Blackwell Companions and Handbooks, major reference works such as the Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management and the Companion to Syntax, and a whole host of other valuable reference materials such as dictionaries, encyclopedias and concise companions."
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Companion to archaic Greece, A
    This title is part of the Blackwell Reference Online e-book collection.
    Unlimited simultaneous users
  • Who's who in the classical world
    "Based on the highly praised Oxford Companion to Classical Literature, this is the ideal reference book for anyone interested in the classical world and its literary heritage. It gives accounts of the lives of many classical authors and character entries and plot summaries for their works. General entries trace the development of literary forms such as comedy and tragedy. There is also wide coverage of the historical, political, social, and artistic background."
    5 simultaneous users.
  • Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World
    Spanning almost one thousand years, from the first Olympic Games in 776 BC to the death of Marcus Aurelius in AD 180, this accessible and wide-ranging reference work draws on the groundbreaking Oxford Classical Dictionary to present more than 2,500 entries on the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome. The dictionary covers key aspects of ancient Greek and Roman life and literature, such as science, social structure, philosophy, and religion, and contains comprehensive articles on central figures, both real and mythological, from Achilles to Zeno. Edited by John Roberts.
    5 simultaneous users.
  • Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization, The
    The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization provides an authoritative survey of the Greek and Roman worlds in all their aspects. Drawing on the latest edition of the higly praised Oxford Classical Dictionary, the Companion offers articles on diverse fields such as, history and politics; ethics and morals; law and punishment; social and family life; language, literature, and art; religion and mythology; technology, science, and medicine. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth.
    5 simultaneous users.
  • ARTstor
    Searchable database of over 1.2 million digital images. ARTstor covers many time periods and cultures, and documents the fields of architecture, painting, sculpture, photography, decorative arts, and design, as well as many other forms of visual culture. Images are drawn from a variety of sources including: museums, archaeological teams, photo archives, slide collections, and art reference publishers. Users can search, view, and download images.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Ancient Greece vols. 1-3
    Survey of Greek history, culture, and civilization from its earliest archaeological remains until the Battle of Actium (31 B.C.E.), when Greek civilization merged with Roman to become Greco-Roman civilization. Includes coverage of major personages, wars, political, and cultural subjects.
  • Companion to Byzantium, A
    "Using new methodological and theoretical approaches, A Companion to Byzantium presents an overview of the Byzantine world from its inception in 330 A.D. to its fall to the Ottoman Turks in 1453." --Wiley online library product information.
    Unlimited simultaneous users
  • Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook [HIL-REF DG78 .M22 2010]
  • Greek and Roman sexualities : a sourcebook [HIL-REF HQ13 .L37 2012]

    This volume provides readers with a substantial selection of primary sources documenting sexualities, sexual behaviors, and perceptions of sex, sexuality, gender, and the body among people in the ancient Greco-Roman world.

  • Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG)
    The TLG allows searching the full text of all ancient Greek texts surviving from the period beginning with Homer (c. 8th century BCE) down to the fall of the Roman Empire and further beyond into the Byzantine period. Topics include Greek literature, history, and culture.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Greek-English Lexicon, A [HIL-REF PA445 .E5 L6 1948 vols. 1-2]
  • Oxford Latin Dictionary [HIL-REF PA2365 .E5 O9 vols. 1-2]
    The authoritative dictionary for Classical Latin updated and redesigned.
  • Pocket Oxford Latin dictionary (Latin-English), The
    "This practical dictionary is designed specifically to meet the needs of students in their first years of studying Latin, as well as those with an interest in the Latin language or the classical world."
    5 simultaneous users.
  • Pocket Oxford Latin dictionary (English-Latin), The
    "This practical dictionary is designed specifically to meet the needs of students in their first years of studying Latin, as well as those with an interest in the Latin language or the classical world."
    5 simultaneous users.
  • Handbook for Classical Research [HIL-REF DE71 .S27 2011]

    Offers guidance to students needing to learn more about the different fields and subfields of classical research, and its methods and resources. This book is divided into 7 parts: The Basics, Language, The Traditional Fields, The Physical Remains, The Written Word, The Classics and Related Disciplines, The Classics since Antiquity.

  • Dictionary of Bibliographic Abbreviations Found in the Scholarship of Classical Studies and Related Disciplines [HIL-REF PA99 .W44 2003]

    The problem that led Wellington (classics, U. of Cincinnati) to compile the reference is that colleagues and journals in her and related disciplines tend to make up their own bibliographic abbreviations without letting anyone in on what they mean. So, she has identified abbreviations scholars are most apt to run across. She updates and expands the 1983 edition by doubling the entries, expanding the titles referred to, enlarging the field covered, integrating Internet abbreviations, and including more regional historical and archaeological publications and eastern European titles. Annotation (c)2003 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com) Distributed by Syndetic Solutions, Inc.

 

Find Books

UNB WorldCat is our catalogue for searching UNB Libraries' collections.  It is useful when you don't have a particular title in mind and are instead searching by topic or keyword(s) to see what is available.  Note that UNB WorldCat also includes links to selected article records by default.  After an initial search you can limit results to books, if desired.

Search UNB WorldCat:     

Advanced Search | Locations Guide | Other Catalogues | Help/FAQ

 

To browse the shelves for books in Classics, try the following Call Number ranges:

D51-90 Ancient History
CC Archaeology - General
PA Classical Languages & Literature
DF Greece, History
DE Greco - Roman World
N Fine Arts
DG Italy, History
B108-708 Philosophy, Ancient
BL Religion - Mythology

 

Document Delivery Service

Books and other materials not available at UNB may be available for loan from another institution through our document delivery service.  See the document delivery page for the electronic request form.  Delivery in print or electronic form usually takes between 3-7 days.

 

Key Databases & Journals

When searching for journal articles, an article/research database is usually the best place to begin.  Below are some recommended article databases for research in Classics.

The key database used to research all aspects of Greek and Roman antiquity (prehistory to AD 800) is an international index - L'Annee Philologique

Key Resources

  • Année philologique
    L'Année philologique (APh) is the most comprehensive international index to scholarly research in Classical Studies from prehistory to 800 A.D. The web version covers a wide variety of subjects including archaeology, ancient history, language, literature, law, philosophy, religion, science, and technology. APh currently indexes over 400,000 bibliographic records to journal articles, books, conference papers and book reviews from 1949 onward.
    3 simultaneous users.
  • JSTOR Archival Collection
    JSTOR provides access to back issues of a variety of scholarly journals. UNB Libraries currently subscribes to the Arts & Sciences (I through X) collections, along with the Life Sciences and Ireland collections.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Academic Search Premier
    Academic Search Premier is a multidisciplinary resource that "provides journal coverage for most academic areas of study."
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Modern Language Association (MLA) International Bibliography (EBSCOhost)
    "MLA International Bibliography offers a detailed bibliography of journal articles, books and dissertations. Produced by the Modern Language Association (MLA), the electronic version of the bibliography dates back to the 1920s and contains millions of citations from journals & series, as well as book publishers. The indexed materials coverage is international, and includes titles and full-text links from J-STOR and Project Muse. This resource also contains hundreds of thousands of subject names and terms."
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Project Muse
    "Project MUSE covers the fields of literature and criticism, history, the visual and performing arts, cultural studies, education, political science, gender studies, and many others." UNB subscribes to almost 400 eJournals, and provides access to select Open Access eBooks.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.

Additional Resources

  • Philosopher's Index (ProQuest)
    The Philosopher's Index "is a bibliographic database with informative author-written abstracts covering scholarly research in the fifteen fields of philosophy, published in journals and books since 1940."
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Art Index
    Art Index "references articles from international art publications, as well as paintings that appear as illustrations for articles or advertisements, listing the works under the artists' names with full bibliographic citations."
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Films on Demand
    Note: UNB Libraries subscribes to the Master Academic Collection and FMG Archival Films & Newsreels Collection. Not all films listed are viewable. Videos are in Flash format. Includes 5,500+ educational titles and over 60,000 video segments licensed for use in Canada, covering a broad range of subjects including business, social sciences, education, health and medicine, humanities, sciences, and guidance, and including archival films and newsreels.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Theatre in Video
    Contains performances of the world's leading plays and film documentaries on the subject of theater in streaming video. Some plays presented in multiple productions exemplifying various interpretations of the text, and technical and cultural differences among the presentations. Stage work of directors and actors are cross-searchable and available for side-by-side comparison. Interviews with directors, designers, writers, and actors, along with excerpts of live performances, provide illustration of the development of texts and the productions.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG)
    The TLG allows searching the full text of all ancient Greek texts surviving from the period beginning with Homer (c. 8th century BCE) down to the fall of the Roman Empire and further beyond into the Byzantine period. Topics include Greek literature, history, and culture.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Periodicals Archive Online (PAO - ProQuest)
    "Periodicals Archive Online is a major online periodical archive that makes the backfiles of periodicals in the humanities and social sciences available electronically, providing access to the full text of a growing number of digitized periodicals that have been indexed in its sister database, Periodicals Index Online."--About page.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Iter - Gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance
    A bibliography covering the period 400-1700. Citations are drawn from journals, books, conference proceedings, festschriften, encyclopedias and exhibition catalogues.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Dissertations & Theses (ProQuest PQDT: formerly Digital Dissertations)
    ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (formerly Digital Dissertations) "is the single, authoritative source for information about doctoral dissertations and master's theses. The database represents the work of authors from over 1,000 graduate schools and universities."
    All PhD dissertations and Master's theses from depositing universities are available from 1997 onwards, unless the document's author has requested a temporary delay.
    It is also possible to search within an interface exclusive to Dissertations & Theses @ University of New Brunswick.

    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Google Scholar
    Google Scholar searches a subset of the Web that Google has classified as "scholarly literature". They do not publish a list of chosen sites, and they do not state how often sites are checked. Some important sources are not covered at all. Thus, Google Scholar alone should not be relied on for comprehensive research.
    By accessing Google Scholar via the UNB Libraries website, you benefit from technology that lets on-campus and off-campus users connect directly to full-text articles in journals to which UNB subscribes. Just click on the blue Title link in the Google result list.
    Off-campus users can also set Scholar Preferences to show the "Check for fulltext @ UNB" link in search results. See "Scholar Preferences" at the Google Scholar site.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.

Academic Journals

UNB Libraries subscribes to a wide variety of academic journals, both in print and online. Some examples include:

Document Delivery

If you can't locate the item you're looking for at UNB, either in print or online, you can still submit a document delivery request.

 

Primary Sources

What is a Primary Source?

A primary source is an original record that provides a first-hand account or evidence of an historical event.

Primary sources are often the most important original information a researcher can obtain to interpret the event under study.  As such, even a record created following the event may serve as a primary source as it offers the only evidence available to the researcher.  An ancient author could have been a participant, an observer, or possibly reflect their own personal opinion about the historical event being studied. 

Examples of primary sources are speeches, letters, memoirs, autobiographies, oral histories, works of art or ancient artifacts.

Loeb Classical Library

A series of translated works written by ancient Greek and Roman authors known as the Loeb Classical Library are available in our libraries.  Each Loeb volume offers either the Greek or Latin text plus an English translation on the facing page of each work.

A comprehensive collection of Loeb Classical Library volumes are available in the Harriet Irving Library in the Beaverbrook Room (4th Floor) as follows: 

  • Greek Authors (Green Hardcovers) 880.8 HIL-BBKRM (4th floor)
  • Latin Authors (Red Hardcovers) 870.8 HIL-BBKRM (4th floor)

Additional Loeb volumes may be housed in the regular library collection (HIL-STACKS) using the following Call Number ranges:

  • Greek Authors PA 3611-3612
  • Latin Authors PA 6156

Searching UNB WorldCat for Primary Sources

Our libraries also contain specialized anthologies of primary sources.  Here are a few examples:

  • Lefkowitz, Mary R. Women's Life in Greece and Rome : A Source Book in Translation, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
  • Pollitt, J.J. The Art of Ancient Greece: Sources and Documents, Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Shelton, Jo-Ann. As the Romans Did : A Source Book in Roman Social History,  New York:Oxford University Press, 1998
  • Pollitt, J.J. The Art of Rome, C. 753 B.C.-A.D. 337: Sources and Documents. Cambridge Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

To find books/anthologies that contain references to primary sources, try using a subject search of our UNB WorldCat catalogue using the following as an example:

  • rome sources   (should find sources, sourcebook, primary sources)

It is also important to remember that books/anthologies offer excerpts from original primary sources.  It can be worthwhile for researchers to obtain and read the primary source in its entirety in order to develop your own interpretation of the event under study.  

Online Primary Sources

UNB Libraries subscribes to an excellent searchable digital library of ancient Greek texts:

A wealth of information is also freely available on the internet but careful evaluation is a crucial part of conducting research using internet sites.  

The following free sites may be useful as they contain translations of some Greek and Roman authors:

Free Internet Sites

While there is a wealth of information freely available on the internet, not all sites are created equal. Careful evaluation is a critical part of doing research on the Internet.  Below are a few recommended sites:

 

Citing Your Sources

Accurate, properly formatted footnotes, reading lists, and bibliographies are hallmarks of good academic research. Through citing, you acknowledge the source of any ideas you mention in your writing, document your research, and provide the information your readers need to track down your sources.

Numerous citation styles exist, and each specifies what elements are required (title, author, journal name, etc.) and how the citation should be formatted.

The standard citation style for Classics is the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers but your instructor may require or recommend that you use another.

Consult your course syllabus or check with your instructor to be sure of using the correct citation style for your assignment.

 

More Information