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2014WI_ED*6109*FRE2B Guide

Course Readings

Reading list

Banks, J. A. (2004, Summer ). Teaching for social justice, diversity, and citizenship in a global world. The Educational Forum, 68, 296-305.

Blair, M. (2002). Effective school leadership: The multi-ethnic context. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23(2), 179-191.

Boothe, D. (2000). How to support a multiethnic school community. Principal Leadership, 81-82.

Broadway, M. (2007). Meatpacking and the transformation of rural communities: A comparison of Brooks, Alberta and Garden City, Kansas. Rural Sociology, 72(4), 560-582. url=

Broadway, M. (2013). The world “meats” Canada: Meatpacking’s role in the cultural transformation of Brooks, Alberta. American Geographical Society’s Focus on Geography, 56(2), 47-53. url=

Bustamante, R., Nelson, J., & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2009). Assessing schoolwide cultural competence: Implications for school leadership preparation. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(5), 793-827.

Cooper, C. (2009). Performing cultural work in demographically changing schools: Implications for expanding transformative leadership frameworks. Educational Administration Quarterly. 45(5), 694-724.

DeCuir, J. T., & Dixson, A. D. (2004). "So when it comes out, they aren't that surprised that it is there": Using critical race theory as a tool of analysis of race and racism in education. Educational Researcher, 33(5), 26-31.

Deslisle, J. (2009). An institution deeply rooted in the status quo: insights into leadership development and reform in the education sector of Trinidad and Toabgo. Social and Economic Studies. 58(1), 69-93.

Devine, D. (2013). Practising leadership in newly multi-ethnic schools: tensions in the field? British Journal of Sociology of Education, 34(3), 392-411. url=

Evans, A. (2007). School leaders and their sensemaking about race and demographic change. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(2), 159-188.

Gay, G. (2013). Teaching to and through cultural diversity. Curriculum Inquiry, 43(1), 48-70. url=

George, J. M., & Lubben, F. (2002). Facilitating teachers' professional growth through their involvement in creating context-based materials in science. International Journal of Educational Development, 22(6), 659-672.

George, J. M. (2013). ‘Do you have to pack?’—Preparing for culturally relevant science teaching in the caribbean. International Journal of Science Education, 35(12), 2114-2131.

Goddard, J. T., & Hart, A. (2007). School leadership and equity: Canadian elements. School Leadership and Management, 27(1), 7-20.

Grady, K. J. (2001). "School made me stupid": The literacies and learning of immigrant adolescents in a rural midwestern high school. (Doctoral Dissertation,Indiana University).

Hamm, L. D. (2010). "I'm just glad I'm here": Stakeholder perceptions from one school in a community undergoing demographic changes on the alberta grasslands. University of Calgary.

Hodgkinson, H. (Dec 2002). Grasping demographics: Get ready for them now. Education Digest, 68(4), 4-7. url=

Howard, G. (2007). As diversity grows, so must we. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 16-22. url=

Lund, D. (2003). Educating for social justice: Making sense of multicultural and antiracist theory and practice with Canadian teacher activists. Intercultural Education, 14(1), 3-16. url=

Madhlangobe, L. & Gordon, S. (2012). Culturally responsive leadership in a diverse school: A case study of a high school leader. NASSP Bulletin, 96(3), 177-202.

McKenzie, K. B., Christman, D., Hernandez, F., Fierro, E., Capper, C. A., Dantley, M.,… Scheurich, J. J. (2008). From the field: A proposal for educating leaders for social justice. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(1), 111– 138.

McKenzie, K. & Scheurich, J. (2004). Equity Traps: A useful construct for preparing principals to lead schools that are successful with racially diverse students. Educational Administration Quarterly 40 (5), 601-632.

McKenzie, K. B., & Scheurich, J. J. (2008). "Teacher resistance to improvement of schools with diverse students". International Journal of Leadership in Education, 11(2), 117-133.

Merchant, B. (1999). Ghosts in the classroom: Unavoidable casualties of a principal’s commitment to the status quo. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 4(2), 153-171. url=

Merchant, B. (1999). Now you see it; now you don’t: A district’s short-lived commitment to an alternative high school for newly arrived immigrants. Urban Education, 34(1), 26-51.

New Brunswick Early Childhood Centre Research and Development Team, "New Brunswick Curriculum Framework for Early Learning and Child Care – English" (2007).

Ogbu, J. & Simons, H. (1998). Voluntary and involuntary minorities: A cultural-ecological theory of school performance with some implications for education. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29(2), 155-188.

Peck, C., Sears, A., & Donaldson, S. (2008). Unreached and unreachable: Curriculum standards and children's understanding of ethnic diversity in Canada. Curriculum Inquiry, 38(1), 63-92. url=

Riehl, C. (2000). The principal’s role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of Educational Research, 70(1), 55-81.

Robertson, J. & Miller, T. (2007). School leadership and equity: The case of New Zealand. School Leadership and Management: Formerly School Organization, 27(1), 91-103.

Roessingh, H. (2006). The teacher is the key: Building trust in ESL high school programs. Canadian Modern Language Review, 62(4), 563-590. url=

Ryan, J. (2006). Inclusive leadership and social justice for schools. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5(1), 3-17.

Ryan, J. (2010). Promoting social justice in schools: Principals’ political strategies. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 13(4), 357-376. url=

Ryan, J. & Rottmann, C. (2009). Struggling for democracy: Administrative communication in a diverse school context. Educational Management, Administration & Leadership, 37(4), 473-496.

Santoro, N. (2009). Teaching in culturally diverse contexts: What knowledge of ‘self’ and ‘others’ do teachers need? Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 35(1), 33-45.

Shah, S. (2008). Leading multi-ethnic schools: Adjustments in concepts and practices for engaging with diversity. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29(5), 523-536.

Shields, C. M. (2004). Dialogic leadership for social justice: Overcoming pathologies of silence. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 109-132.

Shields, C. M. (2009). Transformative leadership: A call for difficult dialogue and courageous action in racialised contexts. International Studies in Educational Administration, 37(3), 53-68. url=

Shields, C. M. (2010) Transformative Leadership: Working for equity in diverse contexts. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(4), 558-589.

Smith-Davis, J. (2004). The new immigrant students need more that ESL. The Education Digest, 69(8), 21-26. url=

Sobel, A., & Kugler, E. G. (2007). Building partnerships with immigrant parents. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 62-66. url=

Starratt, R. J. (2005). Responsible leadership. The Educational Forum, 69(2), 124-133.

Stewart, J. L. (2008). Children affected by war: A bioecological investigation into their psychosocial and educational needs. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Manitoba).

Stovall, D. (2004, Winter). School leader as negotiator: Critical race theory, praxis, and the creation of productive space. Multicultural Education 12(2), 8-12.

Stovall, D. (2006). Forging community in race and class: critical race theory and the quest for social justice in education. Race Ethnicity and Education, 9(3), 243-259.

Theoharis, G. (2007). Social justice educational leaders and resistance: Toward a theory of social justice leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(2), 221-258.

Theoharis, G. & O’Toole, J. (2011). Leading Inclusive ELL: Social justice leadership for English language learners. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(4), 646-688.

Toohey, K., & Derwing, T. M. (2008). Hidden Losses: How demographics can encourage incorrect assumptions about ESL high school students' success. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 54(2, Summer 2008), 178-193.

Villegas, A. M. (2007). Dispositions in teacher education: A look at social justice. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(5), 370–380.

Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2007). The culturally responsive teacher. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 28-33. url=

Walker, A., & Dimmock, C. (2005, Winter). Leading the multiethnic school: Research evidence on successful practice. The Educational Forum, 69(3), 291-304.

Walker, A. & Riordan, G. (2010). Leading collective capacity in culturally diverse schools. School Leadership & Management: Formally School Organization, 30(1), 51-63.

Research Tutorials

Research QuickStart

Below is a link to a research primer for UNB distance education students, covering online search and access to electronic books and scholarly articles:


How to search ERIC (Education Resource Information Centre database) on both the EBSCO and ProQuest platforms:

Google Scholar

Using Google Scholar as a UNB student in order to link results to the fulltext of journal articles and to export citations to RefWorks:

Document Delivery

How to submit a request for the full text (i.e., content) of articles to which UNB Libraries does not provide access. "Document delivered" articles are sent to you via email links.


RefWorks at UNB:

Exporting references from ERIC (and other EBSCO databases) to RefWorks:

Once your references are in RefWorks: working with folders and generating bibliographies:

Write-N-Cite 4 for adding in-text citation from RefWorks to MS Word documents:


ebrary: Creating an account, annotating books, exporting citations to RefWorks:

EBSCO: Downloading e-books using Adobe Editions (applies to ebrary, too):

Handbooks and encyclopedias online

What they are, how to find them:

Forming a search using search operators

For those of you interested in learning more about how to break down a research question into its logical parts and put it back together in a manner that works well in ERIC on the EBSCO platform, have a look at the following document:
or else view the following tutorial:

TT/Caribbean Reference

Some useful additional places to find information on Trinidad and Tobago and more broadly on the Caribbean region and its island countries:

Electronic Journals

Caribbean Quarterly

Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education

International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership

International Journal of Educational Development


Established to provide open access to research produced by students and faculty; includes full text access to some of the content in journals such as Caribbean Curriculum and Caribbean Educational Research Journal.

Here is a tutorial Marc Bragdon developed on using UWISpace:

Cambridge Histories Online

This resource contains the online versions of over 270 Cambridge Histories publications in the following 15 areas: American History, British History, Economic History, General History, History of Science, History of the Book, Language and Linguistics, Literary Studies, Music, Philosophy, Political and Social Theory, Regional History, Religious Studies, Theatre Studies and Performing Arts, and Warfare.

eBrary eBooks

A fulltext, searchable database of books, maps, and other authoritative documents in all academic disciplines. Here are some interesting titles found searching for "Trinidad and History":

London, Norell (2003). Pathways to educational transformation and development : policies, plans, lessons. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.

Luke, Learie (2007). Identity and secession in the Caribbean : Tobago versus Trinidad, 1889-1980. Kingston, Jamaica : University of the West Indies Press.

World Trade Press (2010). Trinidad and Tobago Society and Culture: Complete Report. California: World Trade Press.

Springer eBook and Article Collection

Note: UNB only has online access to material marked with a green, square box to the left of the record.The Springer eBook Collection publishes eBooks, eReference Works, journal articles and eBook Series titles on a wide variety of subjects, including science, technology, medicine and the humanities.

e-Reference Resources

Key Resources

  • Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education
    see also [HIL-REF LB14.7 .B57 2002]

    Philosophy of education has now established itself throughout the world as a theoretically significant and practically vital discipline. In this important survey, an international group of leading philosophers charts the development of the field in the twentieth century and points to important questions for its future.Each chapter has been written as a collaboration between authors in order to emphasize the diversity of thought, and where appropriate, the dissent and debate that is intrinsic to the field. The contributors explore social and cultural theories, politics and education, philosophy as education, teaching and curriculum, and ethics and upbringing. The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Education is state-of-the-art map to the field as well as a valuable reference book. Distributed by Syndetic Solutions, Inc.

  • Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science
  • Educator's Desk Reference (EDR): A Sourcebook of Educational Information and Research
    see also [HIL-REF LB1028.27 .U6 F74 2002]

    This master guide facilitates educational research using both traditional and electronic sources.

  • Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies
    see also [HIL-REF LB2806.15 .E48 2010 v.1-2]

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to the academic field of curriculum studies for the scholar, student, teacher, and administrator by introducing terms, events, documents, biographies, and concepts.

  • Functional Approach to Educational Research Methods and Statistics : Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, A

    An engaging and informative text on educational research and statistics, this book tries to utilize outcomes of research for the benefit of humanity. The text examines how research is conducted across the major traditions of educational research (quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods). It is designed for graduate students who want to pursue statistics, and it will help them to write their thesis. The book fulfills a need for a systematic account of research concepts and the use of statistics for advanced students. The fact is that research involves interrelated activities and educators practice research following a general sequence of procedures. This book is demarcated into sections that reflect each step in the process of doing a study.

  • Integrating Teaching, Learning, and Action Research : Enhancing Instruction in the K-12 Classroom

    Helping teachers engage K–12 students as participatory researchers to accomplish highly effective learning outcomes Integrating Teaching, Learning, and Action Research: Enhancing Instruction in the K–12 Classroom demonstrates how teachers can use action research as an integral component of teaching and learning. The text uses examples and lesson plans to demonstrate how student research processes can be incorporated into classroom lessons that are linked to standards.

  • Sage handbook of educational leadership: advances in theory, research, and practice, The
    see also [HIL-REF LB2805 .S262 2005]

    Thirty-seven academic practitioners and researchers from the U.S., Canada, and Argentina contribute 23 chapters to a resource text for professionals and graduate students in the field of educational leadership and administration. Coverage includes the many lenses that today's educational leaders must use to promote democratic leadership; organizational theory as it pertains to education; day-to- day management issues; the role of school law in the development of public education; educational politics and policy, and how to use policy to move schools in effective, equitable, and democratic directions; research problems and practices for developing theories of leadership; and day-to-day and micropolitical challenges facing school leaders. Annotation #169;2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR ( Distributed by Syndetic Solutions, Inc.

Additional Resources

  • Oxford English Dictionary (OED Online)
    "This unique and powerful resource offers unprecedented access to the definitive record of the meaning, history and evolution of more than 600,000 words over the last 1,500 years." A complete text of the 2nd. ed. of the Oxford English dictionary with quarterly updates, including revisions not available in any other form.
    5 simultaneous users.

Find Articles

Databases listed below provide access to citations and often the full text of journal/magazine/other articles when UNB has an electronic subscription to the host or source publication. Where full text is not linked directly, there should be some facility (often denoted by the UNB sail logo) to "Check for Fulltext".

If you are unable to locate the item you are looking for at UNB, either in print or online, you can still submit a document delivery request.

Key Resources

    ERIC is a "bibliographic database that contains education-related documents and journal articles." The EBSCO interface also provides some full text linking.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Academic Search Premier (EBSCO)
    Academic Search Premier is a multidisciplinary resource that "provides journal coverage for most academic areas of studies."
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Google Scholar
    Google Scholar searches a subset of the Web that Google has classified as "scholarly literature". They do not publish a list of chosen sites, and they do not state how often sites are checked. Some important sources are not covered at all. Thus, Google Scholar alone should not be relied on for comprehensive research.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.

Additional Resources

  • Dissertations & Theses (ProQuest PQDT)
    ProQuest Dissertations and Theses "is the single, authoritative source for information about doctoral dissertations and master's theses. The database represents the work of authors from over 1,000 graduate schools and universities."

    All PhD dissertations and Master's theses from depositing universities are available from 1997 onwards, unless the document's author has requested a temporary delay.

    It is also possible to search within an interface exclusive to Dissertations & Theses @ University of New Brunswick.

    For UNB theses submitted after 2012, please consult UNB’s institutional repository, UNB Scholar, or the library catalogue, UNBWorldCat.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.

  • PsycINFO (American Psychological Association - EBSCO)
    PsycINFO is an abstracting and indexing database of more than 2000 journals (approximately 3.3 million records) devoted to peer-reviewed literature (journals, books and dissertations) in the behavioural sciences and mental health.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Canadian Business and Current Affairs (CBCA) Education (ProQuest)
    Please note: CBCA Education is now searchable as part of the larger CBCA Complete collection. Canadian Business and Current Affairs (CBCA) Complete is the nation's largest and most comprehensive bibliographic full-text reference and current events database. Available through the ProQuest Web interface, CBCA Complete combines full text and indexed content from all four CBCA database subsets (Business, Current Events, Education, and Reference). Subject coverage is comprehensive and information is available from the broadest range of Canadian sources anywhere.
    NOTE: In certain instances ProQuest has decided to omit particular 'articles' from full-text access due to copyright restrictions or because the item has not met their criteria for being an 'article' (ie. too short, a letter, not attributed to an author, etc.).
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • Scopus
    Scopus, a multidisciplinary online resource, will be invaluable to students and faculty in various fields of study within the sciences, health sciences and the social sciences. Scopus offers full-text linking, abstracting-and-indexing information including peer-reviewed titles from international publishers, Open Access journals, conference proceedings, trade publications, quality web sources.
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • SpringerLink
    SpringerLINK service provides access to electronic journals in a variety of subjects, including "life sciences, chemical sciences, geosciences, computer science, mathematics, medicine, physics & astronomy, engineering, environmental sciences, law, and economics."
    [NOTE: pre-1996 Archival content now accessible when available]
    Unlimited simultaneous users.
  • CINAHL with Full Text (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature - EBSCO)
    CINAHL with Full Text is the world's most comprehensive source of full text for nursing & allied health journals, providing full text for more than 500 journals indexed in CINAHL. This authoritative file contains full text for many of the most used journals in the CINAHL index - with no embargo. With full-text coverage dating back to 1981, CINAHL with Full Text is the definitive research tool for all areas of nursing and allied health literature.
    Unlimited simultaneous users

Find Books


Search UNB WorldCat:
Limit to: 


Dissertations and theses

Dissertations and Theses (formerly Digital Dissertations) "is the single, authoritative source for information about doctoral dissertations and master's theses. The database represents the work of authors from over 1,000 graduate schools and universities." All PhD dissertations and Master's theses from depositing universities are available from 1997 onwards, unless the document's author has requested a temporary delay.

The Theses Canada Portal currently provides access to records from the National Library of Canada theses collection (from 1965), and access to fulltext for theses and dissertations submitted between 1998 and 2002.

Citing Your Sources

RefWorks is a web-based bibliographic database manager, available through UNB Libraries, that allows you to create a database of references that can be organized, searched, and used to automatically construct bibliographies and reading lists in many citation styles.

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